IT Security Terms Definitions Q4

IP address: Internet Protocol Address, IP supports unique addressing for computers on a network ( IP packet contains source and destination information). Layer 3 of the OSI model

Switch: Is a small hardware device that joins multiplecomputers together within one Local Area Network (LAN).Forward message based on MAC address. Layer2 of the OSI model

Routers: Are small physical devices that join multiple networks together (Join LANs). Forward message base on IPs. Layer 3 of the OSI model

Intrusion Detection System (IDS): Software orHardware used within a computer(host base IDS)or a network(Network base IDS) to identify possible security breaches.

Intrusion Prevention System (IPS): Software or Hardware used within a computer(host base IPS) or a network(Network base IPS) to identify and prevent/block possible security breaches.

Defense In Depth (DID): Multiple layers of security counter measures to protect the integrity of the information assets in an enterprise(Maintenance phase of the system life cycle)

Defense-in Breadth: A Comprehensive Information Security strategy for protecting Information Systems over the System Life Cycle (i.e., product and/or system design and development, manufacturing, packaging, assembly, system integration, distribution, operations, maintenance, and retirement).

Port: Ports are used to provide services: for example Port 80 to provide web services.

Protocol: In information technology, a protocol is the special set of rules that end points in a telecommunication connection use when they communicate. Protocols specify interactions between the communicating entities ( IP, TCP, UDP, HTTP, FTP, etc.). 

A Request for Comments (RFC) is a formal document from the Internet Engineering Task Force ( IETF ) that is the result of committee drafting and subsequent review by interested parties. It contains technical and organizational notes about the Internet. RFCs cover many aspects of computer networking, including protocols, procedures, programs, and concepts, as well as meeting notes, opinions, and sometimes humor.§Example RFC 959: File Transfer Protocol (FTP)

Malware: is any software used to disrupt computer operation, gather sensitive information, or gain access to private computer systems

Adware:Displays advert

Spyware: Spy on you/tracks your internet activitieso

Virus:-Reproduces itself when the software is run

Worm:-A program that replicates itself and destroys data and files on the computer. The software does not need to run

Trojan-The most dangerous. This is to discoverfinancial information. Looks like a legitimateprogram

Key loggers- Records everything you type on your PC

Anti Virus- Antivirus (anti-virus) software is a classof program that will prevent, detect and remediatemalware infections on individual computing devicesand IT systems. Host or Network Base

Anti Spam filter-A spam filter is a program that is used to detect unsolicited and unwanted email andprevent those messages from getting to a user’s inbox

Firewalls-A firewall is a system(software orhardware) designed to prevent unauthorizedaccess to or from a private network

DMZ demilitarized zone, a computer or small sub- network that sits between a trusted internalnetwork, such as a corporate private LAN, and an untrusted external network, such as the publicInternet. It is made up of;

  • ProxyServer 
  • WebServer 
  • EmailServer 
  • DNSServer
  • Authentication Server


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